Background of the Jakarta Geopolitical Forum II/2018
Over the past two decades the world has undergone many geopolitical changes. Some states try to enlarge their national power to deal with the effects of globalization and utilize their geographic potentials to increase their competitiveness in global politics. This phenomenon can be seen in the rise of China as a new major power in international politics and created geopolitical shift to the Asia Pacific region. It has led this region to become the new arena for struggle of power and targets for arms trade. In 2013, China declared its strategic vision to realize the One Belt, One Road initiatives, a massive geopolitical project to build a network of railroads and shipping lane infrastructure. This initiative now termed as Belt and Road Initiatives (BRI).
The US newly elected government also made several changes in US approach to international issues based on the American First philosophy. However, many still questions about how those changes will affect global politics. The recent US-China Trade War adds more uncertainty to the future of global politics and might trigger other states to adopt protectionist economic policy. The rivalry between both countries to control global economy has resulted in the international economic system that characterized by a new model of realism-imperialism to exploit economic resources in various parts of the world.
The US National Security Strategy and National Defence Strategy had frequently stated the importance of the Indo-Pacific region, particularly of its maritime domain. Both strategy documents also pictured the strategic competition between the US and China that might exacerbate regional tension. However, the withdrawal of the US from the TPP left a question on how the US will engage this strategic region economically and militarily. The withdrawal might leave a bigger opportunity for China to expand its economic influence across this region through the RCEP. In addition, the US seeks to intensify military cooperation through the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue involving three Indo-Pacific countries: Japan, Australia and India. Nevertheless, it is still unclear of how the groupings will be formed and how it can contribute in overcoming regional security issues.
Indonesia hopes that this development will not affect the ASEAN peace, stability and centrality, as well as Indonesia’s national resilience itself. Indonesia is expecting a more active role in regional stability and international peace. Indonesia’s geopolitical vision to become a maritime axis will eventually contribute in mitigating maritime security issues and ongoing conflict in the Indo-Pacific region.
Meanwhile, there were also various events which shook the unity of the E.U. After the release of Britain, economic crisis has hit several E.U. members. This leaves poorer states like Greece with vast amounts of debt and decreasing growth prospects. There is also no unified E.U. security policy; each member state determines its national security strategy.